There are a few instances in which a maternity DNA test would be necessary. It is not as common as paternity testing but, when done correctly, is just as reliable (99.99%) in determining familial relationships. Some of the situations that warrant a maternity DNA test are, adoption cases, immigration, in vitro fertilization confirmation, and hospital nursery mix-ups.
To conduct a maternity DNA test, DNA is collected from the supposed mother, the child, and the biological father, if available. A reliable result can be achieved even without the biological father. A simple buccal (cheek) swap is done. Using a special cotton swap, the lab technician sweeps the inside of the cheek to collect the cells. It is non-invasive and painless. A DNA sample is collected from each participant, using this means. After the collection process, a “chain of command” procedure is followed to ensure that the results will hold up in court and government agencies as needed.